FASHION TALKS

孟加拉成衣大樓倒塌 7 年後,今日血汗工廠有任何改善?

血汗勞工議題與時尚產業息息相關,今日除了原本的高端時尚品牌,快時尚與電商的普及使得整體情況愈趨嚴重,因此,對環境意識高漲的消費者來說,了解自己穿的衣服從何而來,是權利,也是義務。

 

#怎樣才算血汗勞工?
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根據劍橋詞典的定義,顧名思義,即工時過長、薪資過低以及處於惡劣工作環境的勞工。

2013 年,孟加拉拉納廣場大樓倒塌,造成至少 1134 名成衣工人喪生及 2500 人受傷,受害者多為婦女勞工,該棟大樓裡有 6 間為西方市場製造成衣的工廠,上萬人擠在同一棟樓工作,極度惡劣的工作環境,充斥著製作成衣對人體有害的化學物質,勞工罹癌比例提高,即便如此,在當地經濟條件不佳、缺乏勞工法條保障的情況下,這些員工別無選擇,只能苟活。

意外發生後,大眾意識到血汗勞工議題的重要性,並開始檢視品牌衣服背後製程、勞力以及原物料是否符合道德(ethical)標準,同時呼籲品牌透明公開自己的供應鏈。

 

#全球時尚革命
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2015 年,同為時尚工作者的 Carry Somers Orsola de Castro,在災難發生後,認為有迫切的需要改變自己身處的世界,時尚非營利組織 Fashion Revolution 因而成立,並將災難發生當日 4 24 日定為「時尚革命日」,旨在針對時尚產業做出系統性的改變,提高整體生產鏈的透明度,消費者有權利與義務了解穿上身的衣物原物料從何而來、是誰製造的,而那些工廠的勞工又是否有得到合理的對待?

「我們會想要知道自己吃下去的食物來源,對時尚來說是同理可證,消費者應該了解他們的衣服是從哪來的。」Carry Somers 說道。

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The materials we wear on our bodies have a profound social impact on the people in the fashion supply chain. In Tamil Nadu, the Indian capital of cotton production, demand for cheap cotton from big brands has important consequences for the hundreds of thousands of workers turning the raw fibres into finished textiles. There have been many reports about poor working conditions and examples of forced labour, where workers are recruited from rural areas with promises of decent work. A SOMO report writes, “Recruiters convince parents in impoverished rural areas to send their daughters to the spinning mills with promises of a well-paid job, comfortable accommodation, three nutritious meals a day and opportunities for training and schooling, as well as a lump sum payment at the end of three years. However, when the girls arrive at the mills, it turns out that the reality of their new working life is not so attractive.” The prevalence of this reality in South Indian spinning mills relies on brands’ lack of transparency beyond the first tier of the supply chain. In our 2019 Fashion Transparency Index, we found just 27.5% of brands investigated published their processing facilities (tier 2). Without the knowledge of where brands obtain their fabrics, little can be done to protect the vulnerable workers in these facilities. We must demand a fashion industry with as much visibility of the supply chain, as of the clothes on the runways. Let’s ask #WhoMadeMyClothes and demand that brands publish not only their factory lists, but every tier of their supply chains. #FashionRevolution #WhatsInMyClothes?

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「我們該開始檢視衣物製作背後的真正代價,因為今日那還是被隱瞞著的。」Somers 繼續說道,「最終,未來世代的人們將會承擔尚未見到的社會與環境影響。」


影片中指出,目前世界上大約有四千萬的成衣工作者,
百分之 85 為女性,而根據樂施會(Oxfam International)的研究數據顯示,嚴重的勞資不對等也是血汗勞工問題日益加劇的主要因素。

舉例來說,前五大時尚公司的 CEO 只需 4 天便能夠賺得一名孟加拉成衣工廠員工的終生薪資;而美國一般公司的 CEO 僅需一天便能夠賺得員工一年份的薪資。

Orsola de Castro 向《Newsweek 說:「所謂的大公司其實有足夠的財力去改變這一切,他們也開始投資在相關決策中,像是原物料透明化這點。然而,這只是第一步,最重要的還是向外界公開所有資訊。」

「我希望自己穿著的衣服不僅品質到位,也希望這筆消費能夠幫助製作衣服的人得到應有的報酬。」

 

#Who Made My Clothes?
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「在時尚產業裡,環境保護與人權不該是例外,而是基本準則。」
—— Fashion Revolution 共同創辦人 Carry Somers

2018 年,Fashion Revolution 推動社群運動,邀請對道德服飾與血汗勞工議題有想法的大眾一同響應,以 hashtag #WhoMadeMyClothes 為引子,促使品牌公布原物料上下游廠商的名單,讓大眾一同審視。

Somers 說:「Fashion Revolution 之所以能夠成功,是因為我們給了人們一個簡單的工具,讓他們會對相關議題感到好奇,發現表象背後的問題所在,進而開始去找尋可能的解決方案。」


「親愛的(某品牌):

我是你的忠實顧客,一直以來,我都很喜歡你們家的風格。然而,
自從拉納廣場倒塌六年後,我覺得產業內並未見到足夠的正面改變,
這場悲劇造成了上千的孟加拉成衣工人的死傷。

在你品牌供應鏈工作的每個人都應被看見、聽見以及得到適當的薪資,
他們也應擁有安全的工作環境,對我來說這至關重要。

所以請告訴我
#WhoMadeMyClothes
以及讓我了解哪裡可以看到更多有關於品牌供應鏈的更多資訊。」

 

#所以,今日狀況有任何改善?
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「若比較拉納廣場事件發生前跟後,真正有顯著改變的是工廠的安全條件。」孟加拉勞工組織  Bangladesh Centre for Worker SolidarityBCWS)創辦人 Kalpona Akter 向《衛報》如此說道。

自拉納工廠事件爆發後,多間工會以及超過 200 間品牌服飾公司簽訂《孟加拉國防火及建築安全協議》,其中包含 Primark 以及 H&M,對供應鏈中 1600 多家工廠進行審查,了解工廠中是否對員工存在著潛在的危險性,因而迫使工廠老闆對相關安全設備投入預算,如防火牆、灑水器以及電子器材,有的甚至將工廠直接打掉重蓋,只為了能繼續拓展當地事業。

Kalpona Akter 說:「 2000 年,當我創立 BCWS 時,很少工人知道他們有所謂的勞工權利,但今天整體勞工意識已明顯提升,」但當地社運人士與政治家 Hasan Maruf Rumi 則說:「現在勞工不太可能會死在工廠裡,但或許會慢慢地死於營養不良。」

此話怎講?根據 CPD 研究報告指出,從 2013 2018 年,成衣工人的整體生活開銷提升了 86%,而食物開銷則上升 57%,即便目前孟加拉成衣工人的最低薪資已提升到拉納工廠時期的兩倍,仍僅是當地工會所建議的一半。

為此,孟加拉服裝製造商和出口商協會(BGMEA)表示,若當地工人的最低薪資持續上升,很多工廠會因支出過大而關閉,因而呼籲品牌端有必要提高他們的採購成本,才能打平工廠的支出與收益,而始終沒得到相關回覆。

去年年底,《紐約時報》便曾以〈我的衣服是誰做的?〉為題,透過一系列成衣工人的專題訪問,試圖讓大眾更加清楚,自身穿著的每件衣物背後的故事,這一切均承載著一個龐大的血汗體系。

你衣服汰換的越快,在世界另一端的這些成衣工人的手也不能停下,因為他們每一個人身上可能都背負著一個家庭的溫飽。

Photo via New York Times

來自印度的 S 在當地最大的成衣工廠 Shahi Exports 工作,她為快時尚以及機能衣品牌縫製褲子與襪子, 報導中提及,她從早上 9 點便開始工作,需要達到每小時 90 到 120 件的速度,主管給的壓力很大,許多工人因此不敢休息或上廁所,因這樣相當「浪費時間」。

而處理速度跟不上的員工,會個別被帶至一邊任主管大吼並敲打桌子,使得許多工人即便有休息時間,也仍是試圖完成更多作品。S 說道:「我們連喝水的自由都沒有,」並補充,管理層不允許員工帶水瓶進工廠,工廠也未設有窗戶、空調與暖氣。

成衣工廠示意圖,並非事件發生的工廠, photo via Marie Claire AUS

過去水均是由工廠統一派發,而 2018 年春天,有員工反映喝了工廠供應的水感到噁心,因而向管理層寫了封信,內容僅提出例如定期清潔飲用水等基本要求,卻因此遭到管理層的非人道對待,而後員工們便將此事投訴到勞動部,在美國觀察組織、社群網路以及諸多合作品牌的施壓下,工廠的環境因而得到改善,然而,薪資的問題依然存在著。

對此,廠方的發言人證實了此事件的發生,後來也發表一份聲明,概括公司之後所採取的改進措施,並宣稱以任何方式喝斥員工均構成不正當行為,將會對肇事者付諸處分。並補充說道,整個工廠通風充足,整體設備「符合法律規範」。

作為單親家庭的 S,除貸款外,晚上時也會兼額外的工作養活自己與女兒,她說道,在她的城市裡,有成千上萬的人處於同樣的情況。「我的故事只是其中之一。」

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WHAT IS A HOMEWORKER? Mary Milne, of @traidcraftexchange, writes on our blog, “Across south Asia, around 50 million women are ‘homeworkers’ – stitching, cutting, doing embroidery, and trimming clothes for the global fashion industry. Homeworkers are the fashion business’s invisible workforce. They work in many garment supply chains, either doing the jobs that need to be finished by hand – cutting off threads, sewing on buttons or doing hand embroidery – or providing additional flexible labour.” “Located at the periphery of the supply chain, homeworkers have to take what they are given. They are in no position to walk away… With the whole garment industry in lockdown, homeworkers like Bhavna, Ankita, Amita and Kanchan are some of the most vulnerable people in the whole system. Work has just stopped, and it is very unlikely that any benefits or compensation agreed between brands and suppliers will find its way to their families.” When we ask #WhoMadeMyClothes? The replies from those brands that do answer are often just the tip of the iceberg, and we must keep asking the tough questions until every worker, at every level, is seen and heard. Read the full article and the stories of these workers at the link in our story. #FashionRevolution

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結語
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近年,眾多品牌開始意識到今日消費者的環保意識提升,因而祭出相關改變措施,好讓消費者心甘情願買下產品,然而,這些改變似乎僅淪於表面,實際的改變力道仍相當薄弱。為什麼?提到環保議題,大家說歸說,看見快時尚品牌大打折還是照買不誤。供需不減,勞工的情況當然也不可能獲得多大改善,而最後還是得回到消費者以及品牌的選擇身上。

此外,根據賓州大學國際勞工人權中心的研究報告,自拉納廣場事件爆發後,西方國家品牌向代工廠購買男性棉褲的價格下滑了 13%,報告中有多數成衣代工廠的老闆指出,這些大品牌不僅希望他們投入資本更新安全措施,另一方面也繼續惡性壓低他們的成本。

作為消費者,在購買之前,我們都該做好功課,了解你選擇的品牌是否與血汗工廠有掛勾,或是品牌端有清楚公布品牌的原物料進出口產地,以及背後的勞工是否有受到合理的待遇。最後,希望大家能夠以質制量,不要輕易妥協。

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Yesterday we shared the tragic news of a bag factory fire in Delhi, and asked our community to stand up for human rights, and demand the fashion industry puts an end to exploitation. Many asked which factory was responsible for the fire. In our call-out culture, having a brand name to blame would surely make us feel more in control. Yet the fashion industry’s widespread exploitation will never be on the shoulders of any one brand or factory, its abuses are ⚙️ SYSTEMIC ⚙️ In an op-ed Jennifer Ewah @EdenDiodati tell us why our rampant consumption is ultimately to blame for one garment factory tragedy after another. She writes, “We cannot relegate this kind of disaster and horrifying loss of life to some form of aberration or isolated illegality on the part of factory owners, municipal authorities or even the Indian government. The negligence and exploitation that led to this tragedy was deliberate, premeditated and predicated on industrial-scale greed, fuelled by our materialism, because the business as usual priority is for us to seemingly be incapable of saying no to cheap ‘bargains’ and demanding #WhoMadeMyClothes?” “Make no mistake, we are complicit in this constant tragic loss of life when we do not speak up against a fashion value chain that allows this. Our choices may not, in linear terms, directly force people into poverty and the hideous choice of working in slavery or near-slavery conditions (facing starvation in the alternative) but if we do not champion a fairer system, we are culpable. We, the lucky few, who are purchasing rather than making the garments, are beneficiaries of a fashion system of injustice that is fuelling these disasters.” Read the full Op-ed at the link in our story. #FashionRevolution

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